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What Are the Predictors for Developing Hypertension in South Africa?

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Learn more on key predictors of hypertension and how to manage and prevent hypertension.

the Predictors for Developing Hypertension

South Africa has one of the highest levels of hypertension globally. According to national and regional surveys, a whopping 35 – 49% of South African adults are estimated to be hypertensive, with at least one-third of the population unaware of their hypertensive status, and, at best, 25% on medication.01

With South Africa’s overburdened public healthcare systems and low levels of private medical aid coverage, managing and preventing hypertension is vital. To do this, it is important to first understand what the key predictors of hypertension are.

According to the WHO-SAGE population survey, the key predictors of hypertension and hypertension awareness include:

  • A diabetes diagnosis.

According to the survey, individuals with diabetes were twice as likely to have hypertension, and seven times more likely to be aware.

  • Poverty, access to healthier lifestyle choices, and lower levels of education.

The survey highlighted poverty as a major vulnerability.

  • Salt intake and salt sensitivity.

Women and individuals who reported lower salt intake were more likely to be aware of and treated for hypertension.

  • Elevated waist-to-height ratio.

According to the study, a higher BMI category contributed significantly to hypertension.

  • Age and gender.

Results displayed higher awareness rates amongst older women.

  • Alcohol consumption.

Despite the high prevalence of hypertension – or “high high” as more commonly referred to colloquially – in South Africa, both awareness and control are low. The study also highlighted the need for improved health promotion efforts to increase knowledge of hypertension.

To earn three CPD points, read the paper here.


Ware, L.J., Chidumwa, G., Charlton, K., Schutte, A.E. and Kowal, P., 2019. Predictors of hypertension awareness, treatment and control in South Africa: results from the WHO-SAGE population survey (Wave 2). Journal of human hypertension33(2), pp. 157-166.

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